MultiversX positions itself as an advanced public blockchain offering significant scalability gains over preceding smart contract blockchains like Ethereum by leveraging its unique Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS) algorithm combined with a truly state-sharded architecture. Improving upon other iterations, the Secure Proof of Stake consensus method integrated into MultiversX streamlines the process of random selection in the consensus group, cutting down selection times substantially. Additionally, built-in features, such as automatic transaction routing and state redundancy, play a pivotal role in minimizing latencies, helping to optimize the VM and, ultimately, user experience. These advancements allow MultiversX to attain transaction rates comparable to those of established platforms like VISA, while also ensuring speedy confirmation times and security.
MultiversX was originally founded and launched as Elrond with the ambition to rival heavyweights in the smart contract blockchain landscape, such as Ethereum and (at the time) EOS. In 2017,Lucian Todea, Beniamin Mincu, and Lucian Mincu came together with a shared vision and established Elrond. The company took a significant leap forward in2019 when it secured $1.9 million in funding from a private investment round and an additional $3.25 million in a successful Initial Exchange Offering (IEO)on Binance Launchpad. A detailed breakdown of the initial token allocation is as follows:
· Public sale tokens comprise 25% of the total supply.
· Private sale tokens comprise 19% of the total supply.
· Team tokens comprise 19% of the total supply.
· Reserve tokens comprise 17% of the total supply.
· Advisors received 2.5% of the total supply.
· Ecosystem Rewards tokens comprise 7% of the total supply.
· Marketing tokens comprise 8.5% of the total supply.
· Community tokens comprise 2% of the total supply.
In its initial stages, the cryptocurrency associated with Elrond was known as the ERD coin. However, with the launch of its mainnet in July 2020, the company decided to revamp its tokenomics, renaming its digital asset from ERD to eGLD coin to convey the notion of a digital store of value to the next billion crypto users.
In a strategic move signaling its evolution and future aspirations, Elrond underwent a rebranding exercise in November 2022 to MultiversX. With the change came plans to introduce three new Web 3-native products, namely xFabric, xPortal, and xWorlds, all while still utilizing the underlying Elrond technology at the base layer.
xFabric is introduced as a sovereign blockchain module that encompasses core blockchain applications. The platform is designed to provide a range of features and use cases, aiming to serve developers and institutions that seek adaptable blockchain solutions. xPortal is viewed as MultiversX’s “super-app,” intended to function as a gateway into the crypto financial economy and Metaverse. The platform, which is currently live, allows users to customize digital avatars, manage financial tools, including a debit card, and communicate with other users.
Finally, developed in partnership with technology firm Improbable, xWorlds is positioned as a platform that offers experiences that integrate both xPortal and xFabric into a “world of metaverses.” While the specifics of these experiences are not detailed extensively in the announcement, the collaboration signifies MultiversX's effort to intertwine various products and platforms for a cohesive user experience.
eGLD, MultiversX’s native token, occupies a multifaceted role within the MultiversX ecosystem, which has now evolved into MultiversX. The token serves not just as a digital currency butalso underpins various functionalities critical to the blockchain's health and governance.
Key Utilities of eGLD:
- Transaction Fees: All transactions on the MultiversX blockchain require eGLD as payment for processing.
- Network Security through Staking: eGLD tokens can be staked, a process that aids in enhancing the network's security. Stakeholders play a pivotal role in network validation and, in turn, are often rewarded for their commitment.
- Governance: To foster a decentralized decision-making process, the MultiversX blockchain incorporates eGLD as its native token and medium of exchange. Token holders can influence and vote on pivotal network decisions, giving them a direct say in the blockchain's future trajectory.
When conceptualizing eGLD, the MultiversX team envisioned a token that wouldn't merely operate as a digital currency but would parallel the innate value proposition of gold. However, they aimed to offer added functionalities that would potentially render eGLD more versatile than its tangible counterpart in the long-term perspective.
An intriguing feature of eGLD is its supply cap, fixed at 31,415,926. Initially, early token holders were subjected to lockups, but, as of 2023, the entire supply is now circulating(image below). Such a cap is intentional, driving the token's scarcity and, by extension, its potential demand. Furthermore, instead of adopting a model that continually issues new tokens, MultiversX’s framework utilizes transaction fees. This mechanism effectively diminishes the theoretical ceiling of eGLD, further amplifying its scarcity over time.
It's worth noting that as eGLD adoption grows, the dynamics of its supply and demand will continually evolve, reaffirming that the theoretical maximum supply remains a target rather than an absolute certainty.
Transactions and Fees
MultiversX uses a unique model to determine transaction costs. At the heart of this cost determination is the concept of gas, which acts as the fuel for transactions. Every MultiversX transaction is associated with a processing cost, quantified in terms of gas units. When broadcasting a transaction, it's imperative to allocate a gas limit. This parameter sets the maximum amount of gas units that the transaction might consume. Importantly, the actual gas consumption—referred to as 'used gas'—reflects the real quantity of gas units the network needs to complete the transaction. Any gas units not utilized are labeled 'remaining gas'.
The network, when processing the transaction, segregates the used gas into two distinct categories:
· Gas consumed by value transfers and data management: This component encompasses the core activities like moving eGLD values.
· Gas involved in smart contract execution: This includes operations tied to executing both System and User-Defined Smart Contracts.
It's pivotal to understand that standard eGLD transfers only tap into the first category, namely value movement and data management. In contrast, Smart Contract interactions utilize gas from both categories, depending on the complexity of the operations involved.
The processing fee, denominated in eGLD, is derived from two primary factors: the total gas consumption and the price per gas unit. This gas price, especially for the value transfer and data management component, is not arbitrary. Instead, the transaction must stipulate it, ensuring it meets or surpasses a predetermined threshold.
Once the Network concludes the transaction processing, there's an interesting facet to the system—a potential gas refund. If the gas provided surpasses the actual consumption, thereby leading to an overpayment in fees, the Network returns a portion of the eGLD. This 'gas refund' corresponds to the unused or 'remaining gas.'
At its core, MultiversX is a “next generation” smart contract blockchain competing against the likes of Ethereum, Polygon, Near, Solana, etc. However, MultiversX has introduced two defining features to its architecture that others have not:
1. Adaptive State Sharding: This innovative approach involves fragmenting the blockchain's infrastructure, paving the way for a higher volume of transactions and programs, all while ensuring seamless operation. This ensures that as more computers are integrated into the network, MultiversX’s performance doesn't just maintain but escalates, potentially hitting an impressive benchmark of over 100,000 transactions every second.
2. Secure Proof-of-Stake (SPoS): A consensus mechanism tailor-made by MultiversX, SPoS is designed to synchronize disparate parts of the network, ensuring they align with a unified ledger.
MultiversX WASMVM and Programming Languages
Before diving into MutiversX’s novel Adaptive State Sharding or SPoS, it is worthwhile to understand its virtual machine carried over from its days as MultiversX, now referred to as the MultiversX Virtual Machine. What is unique about this VM is that it serves as an abstraction layer, designed to insulate smart contract developers from the intricacies of the system's internal architecture, simplifying their development experience.
The VM is built using WebAssembly, often referred to as WASM. WASM is a binary instruction format tailored for stack-based virtual machines utilized by other projects like Polkadot and Solana. The benefit of WASM is that it offers developers a diverse toolkit; they're not limited to a single language like Solidity. Instead, they can harness the capabilities of languages like C, C++, Rust, C#, and Typescript(any supported language that can be compiled to bytecode). Despite multiple programming language options, the MultiversX team only supports (and therefore recommends) developers to use Rust. In the future, WASM will be able to compile Solidity code (the most popular smart contract language), making MultiversX and Ethereum/ERC-20 transactions frictionless.
Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS)
Blockchain technology relies heavily on its consensus mechanisms to ensure stability and security. One such mechanism, the Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS), has been adapted and modified by several platforms, including MultiversX. Just like other PoS chains, nodes running the MultiversX software validate transactions and secure the network. However, MultiversX has introduced its own set of modifications due to its unique architecture. Case in point, MultiversX has shards (discussed more later) instead of a single chain from which validating nodes are selected instead of from the entire chain. For final settlement to occur, validators from the shards must verify the actions of block producers and coordinate with other shards in the network.
MultiversX’s Unique Twist
MultiversX employs a complex strategy for achieving consensus compared to some PoS chains. The framework intertwines random validator selection, a stake and rating-based eligibility criterion, and determines an ideal size for the consensus group. To understand this approach, let's delve into its procedural components.
Each participating node is characterized by a public key, a default rating (initialized at 50), and a specific amount of locked stake. A node desiring to be part of the consensus mechanism is required to register via the staking system. This involves transmitting a transaction that encompasses not only the requisite minimum stake but also additional data. The amount of stake is important because nodes cast votes on fresh blocks based on their stake. To safeguard against voting attacks, where an attacker without any stake might garner votes from those who trust them or offset the expense of delegating their vote, these votes are given weight by the stake amount.
Upon successful signaling, the node is integrated into the node pool, where it awaits its shard designation based on a random reshuffling of new nodes and existing ones. This collective node set is then systematically redistributed and designated to the standby lists of distinct shards.
Each node within a shard can determine the members of its consensus group, which includes the block proposer and validators, at the beginning of each round. This is facilitated by a randomization factor 'r,' stored in every block. This factor is generated by the block proposer through a BLS signature, based on the preceding 'r'.
Another modification in MultiversX's approach is the introduction of a 'rating' factor to complement the traditional stake factor in the PoS system. This means the selection probability of a node for the consensus group is influenced by both its stake and its rating. The block proposer's rating is typically updated at the end of every epoch.
Every validator node is ascribed arating score, reflecting its reliability and efficacy in consensus building. A proactive and consistent validator will witness its rating climb. Conversely, validators who are absent during consensus events or falter in block production tasks will face rating downgrades.
These ratings aren't just symbolic; they have tangible consequences. The likelihood of a validator's selection during consensus is significantly influenced by its rating. Validators boasting high ratings enjoy a higher probability of selection, translating to more rewards. On the other hand, validators with diminished ratings face the risk of being sidelined.
A consistently underperforming validator risks not only reduced rewards but also "jail" time. A jailed validator is essentially benched, unable to participate in consensus, and thus earning no rewards. To reenter the active validator pool, the node must be "unjailed," a process that comes with a penalty fee currently pegged at 2.5 eGLD.
Adaptive State Sharding
Sharding is a well-known and widely used mechanism in computer science to help scale computers and networks. It divides the network into segments, known as shards, enabling each node to manage only a segment of the network's transactions rather than the entire thing. In this way, multiple nodes can manage smaller portions of the entire network and then come together on consensus. While this method unlocks throughput benefits, it also adds complexity to the system. Sharding is not exclusive to MultiversX; other blockchains like Near Protocol and Polkadot employ it as well, but at a minimal level and thus without benefiting from all its advantages.
To fully appreciate the intricacies of sharding, one must understand the essential role nodes play in the conventional blockchain and their ever-growing demands. Nodes are foundational to the structure and functioning of any decentralized blockchain. Typically, these nodes are responsible for three primary tasks:
· Compute: This involves processing incoming transactions.
· Consensus: Nodes authenticate and relay valid blocks to their peers within the network.
· Storage: Nodes act as custodians, maintaining the history and overall state of the network.
As transaction volumes rise on a network, nodes must exponentially ramp up their computational prowess. Additionally, relaying transactions and valid blocks augments the bandwidth needs of the network. Furthermore, as the blockchain's historical data expands, so does the storage capacity required by nodes.
Enter sharded blockchains and MultiversX’s approach to pruning storage. These approaches seek to address some of these challenges by compartmentalizing tasks. Because each shard is only responsible for maintaining its unique state, it reduces the resource burdens on each node, allowing the blockchain to scale without overly stressing each individual node.
But as with any solution, sharding isn't without its complexities. One of the primary challenges introduced by sharding is the need for cross-shard communication. It's imperative for all shards to have a continuous awareness of specific states across the entire network, ensuring seamless interaction and coordination, especially in tasks like validator selection.
To bridge this complexity, blockchain designs like Ethereum and Polkadot have incorporated central coordinating mechanisms. These systems, often termed Beacon or Relay chains, serve as the fulcrum, orchestrating coordination across the various shards. However, MultiversX employs a unique transaction handling method termed “Adaptive State Sharding.” In fact, MultiversX employs a three-pronged sharding approach:
· Network Sharding: This focuses on enhancing communication by optimizing the network channels through which information flows.
· Transaction Sharding: This procedure maps transactions to specific shards based on the sender's address, streamlining the process and enhancing efficiency.
· State Sharding: Here, rather than each shard maintaining the entire state, they oversee only segments of it, leading to a more distributed and efficient system.
Structurally, MultiversX’s network comprises four distinct shards, fortified by a robust ensemble of 3,200 Validator nodes. Diving deeper, each shard is safeguarded by 400 validators, bringing the tally to 1,600 active nodes with an equivalent number on the waiting list.
In this approach, nodes are grouped into subsets for transaction verification. Once these transactions are verified, the shards relay them to the metachain—MultiversX's primary blockchain—for final settlement. To maintain integrity, every 24 hours, one-third of the nodes from each shard are “reshuffled. ”This strategic movement disrupts any possible collusion opportunities by making it virtually impossible to predict which nodes will be transitioned, thus fortifying the network's security layers.
Traditional sharded design operate with fixed shard sizes, potentially resulting in inefficiencies during peak or low network activities. MultiversX's adaptive model can reconfigure shard computation and organization based on the number of active network nodes and immediate necessity. The critical aspects that make MultiversX’s sharding approach “adaptive” and novel are:
· Architectural Equilibrium: To avoid overburdening specific nodes and to ensure a balanced reward system, MultiversX introduces a method for evenly distributing nodes across shards. This equilibrium not only maximizes efficiency but also fortifies the network's overall stability.
· Automated Transaction Routing: In a move to further optimize performance, MultiversX has designed a mechanism for automatic transaction routing to pertinent shards. Such a mechanism not only conserves resources but also drastically cuts down latency.
· Sustainability through Shard Pruning: To remain sustainable, especially considering a potential throughput of tens of thousands of transactions per second (TPS), MultiversX employs a shard pruning mechanism. This technique significantly enhances both bootstrapping and storage capabilities, ensuring the system's longevity and performance.
Nodes and Users
The MultiversX ecosystem is comprised of two core participants: users and nodes. Users are very straightforward. They are participants who interact with the MultiversX network to facilitate signed transactions. This could range from basic value transfers to the intricate execution of smart contracts. To facilitate these transactions, users hold one or more public/private (Pk/sk) key pairs, often stored in digital wallet applications. The identity of a user within the network is pegged to their unique account address, which is intrinsically linked to their public key.
On the other hand, nodes represent the technological backbone of the MultiversX network and are a bit more nuanced. While some nodes may adopt a passive stance, others are actively immersed in transaction processing. Among the nodes, a subset called "eligible validators" plays a pivotal role. They are the workhorses of the MultiversX ecosystem, driving consensus, curating blocks, preserving the state of transactions, and receiving rewards for their diligence. The identity of each eligible validator is a culmination of two attributes: an address that has staked a requisite amount and a unique node ID.
Eligible validators are methodically placed within shards. Each shard houses a consensus group chosen at random. Within this group, a designated block proposer assembles transactions into a new block. Following this, the onus shifts to validators. They critically assess the proposed block, either endorsing it, leading to its addition to the blockchain, or rejecting it.
Validators emerge as some of the most crucial nodes within the MultiversX framework. Their primary function is processing transactions, thereby ensuring the fluidity of activities on the blockchain. Beyond this, validators contribute significantly to fortifying the network's security infrastructure. They participate actively in the consensus mechanism, a procedure fundamental to achieving agreement across the network on the validity of transactions.
For their pivotal role, validators receive dual rewards: from the protocol itself and transaction fees. However, the path to becoming a validator involves certain prerequisites. As a security measure and a show of commitment, potential validators need to stake eGLD tokens as collateral. As of the latest standards, this stake is fixed at 2500 eGLD. This staking mechanism not only maintains the integrity of their roles but also acts as a deterrent against potential malfeasance.
Validator nodes, given their influential position, are held to rigorous standards. If a validator node is found engaging in malicious activities or consistently misbehaving, the network imposes penalties. This punitive measure involves "stake slashing, "where a portion of the staked eGLD tokens are forfeited. In extreme cases, them is behaving validator can even be stripped of its validator status. Such stringent measures ensure the network's integrity remains uncompromised.
In contrast to validators, nodes that do not hold a stake are termed Observer nodes. Although they don't have the privilege of participating in consensus or earning rewards, their contributions to the network are crucial in different capacities. Their primary function is to serve as a "read and relay" conduit. Essentially, they maintain a record of activities on the blockchain and facilitate the relay of this information. Depending on the depth of their engagement, Observers are categorized into two:
· Full Observers: These nodes retain the entire historical record ofthe blockchain, making them repositories of the network's legacy.
· Light Observers: Their engagement is somewhat limited, retaining data on just the last two epochs of blockchain history.
One distinguishing feature of observers is the lack of a mandatory staking requirement. They can seamlessly integrate into the network without staking eGLD tokens. Correspondingly, their passive role does not earn them rewards.
xPortal, one of the three primary products envisioned when transitioning from MultiversX to MultiversX, is the ecosystem’s latest “super-app” and mobile wallet compatible with Android and iOS platforms. From a financial perspective, xPortal offers tools for managing a variety of assets, similar to other digital wallets. This includes options for fiat currencies, cryptocurrencies, NFTs, and other investments. However, with xPortal, the app's AI avatar customization feature allows users to tailor their experiences and engage with others within the platform. It also encompasses a range of safety and privacy features, including end-to-end encrypted messaging and the introduction of Guardians.
The "Guardians" feature is designed to bolster security for users, acting as a shield against potential threats. With this new feature that is natively implemented at the protocol level, a user can designate another entity, termed the "Guardian," to co-sign all transactions. This is akin to a form of 2-FA embedded into the wallet. This added layer of verification becomes active once the new user syncs an Authenticator app with their preferred wallet. In an effort to provide even more protection for users, a 20-day “cooldown period” is instituted if a Guardian is changed. This extended timeframe offers users a sufficient window to transfer their funds to a secure location if they suspect any malicious activity on their accounts.
Additionally, MultiversX offers the "Invisible Guardians" feature specifically for its xPortal users. This variant ensures the same high-security level as the standard Guardian feature but aligns more seamlessly with the user experience that xPortal patrons are familiar with. With this feature active, an "invisible guardian" is encrypted and stored on the user's device. This entity discreetly co-signs all transactions, offering added security, particularly if the user's secret phrase gets exposed. Should such a breach occur, any malicious entity with the secret phrase will still be barred from making transactions without the Invisible Guardian's co-signature. While they can initiate a Guardian change, such a process is still bounded by the 20-daycooldown, during which the original user can cancel any such requests.
MultiversX provides two primary pathways for those interested in staking: Validators and Delegators.
1. Validators: For those opting to become Validators, they will need to run a node and stake a minimum of 2,500eGold. Payouts for validators are automatic, and there is no need to claim manually.
2. Delegators: On the other hand, Delegators have a more flexible entry point, with the necessity to stake a minimum of just one eGold for each delegation. However, delegators must manually claim rewards.
For the average user, staking within the xPortal app is simple, non-custodial, and intuitive. Users with as little as one eGLD can select from a list of staking agencies or providers and stake with them in a non-custodial fashion for a small fee. At no juncture do staking agencies have direct access to an investor's funds, and users can unstake at any point. However, users should be aware that there is a10-day-long unstaking process. It's crucial for investors to note that the10-day period is more than a mere waiting time. Only after this window, and post the successful withdrawal, does the unstaked eGLD reflect in the user's wallet. Initiating this process is straightforward: users send the unstake transaction and, 10 days later, finalize the withdrawal of their unstaked eGLD. As of October 2023, eGLD staking has a nominal return of ~6.7% and a ~1% real return when factoring in the protocol’s token inflation.
Opportunities for Growth
As the crypto economy has evolved over the years, it has become increasingly likely that the “multichain” thesis will eventually win out over a winner-take-all blockchain future. Smart contract blockchains are a rapidly growing sector of the cryptocurrency industry as users find value in certain aspects of different chains. However, even as the multichain future seems more and more likely in the future, as ofright now, Ethereum remains the clear market leader in this cycle’s bear market. However, a number of other blockchains, including MultiversX, are continuing to build and look to serve as viable competitors to Ethereum in the long term.
These competing blockchains offer a variety of advantages over Ethereum, such as faster transaction speeds, lower fees, and more scalability. However, Ethereum still has a number of advantages as well, including a larger developer community, a more mature DeFi ecosystem, and more user transactions/revenue (images below).
Despiteone full crypto bull-bear cycle under its belt, MultiversX’s DeFi ecosystem is still quite nascent, with only ~15 dApps of meaningful TVL in the ecosystem (via DefiLlama) versus hundreds listed for its competitors. However, there is undoubtedly experimentation and development going in the background, as the MultiversX block explorer profiles hundreds of tokens and projects. One of the potential reasons for the lack of DeFi adoption compared to its peers may be that there are relatively very few third-party dApps/developers on MultiversX. As a result, most of the dApps on MultiversX are built by the core team. This reliance on the core team is an issue because the pace of innovation is slower, and the entire ecosystem is arguably less robust. The crypto community is highly aligned with the open-source software movement that encourages outside builders to come and contribute to the code/network. The MultiversX team recognizes this and has begun hosting quarterly hackathons, with the most recent boasting >900 participants and >100 project registrations.
Security and Audits
In an era where digital assets are consistently hacked and fall prey to technical bugs/exploits, the credibility of a blockchain project hinges significantly on its robustness and security. One critical aspect of a chain’s security, real and perceived, is technical audits and the transparent disclosures of the audits. Multiple audits from separate reputable security firms stand as veritable gatekeepers, ensuring the credibility and safety of a blockchain initiative.
Three pivotal benefits underscorethe significance of these audits:
· Enhancing Security: Foremost, audits spotlight potential security vulnerabilities, permitting projects to pre-emptively address threats. This proactive measure curtails risks of hacker exploitation, subsequently safeguarding both users and investors from potential fiscal setbacks.
· Fostering Trust: Undertaking a technical audit isn't merely about identifying vulnerabilities; it's a proclamation of a project's allegiance to security and transparency.
· Navigating Regulatory Landscapes: The legislative environment surrounding cryptocurrencies is intricate and varied. In certain jurisdictions, periodic technical audits aren't optional but mandatory. Adhering to these mandates not only averts potential legal complications but also bolsters a project's standing in regulated markets.
While the advantages of technical audits are obvious, it should be stressed that they aren't a panacea. No audit, however comprehensive, can pronounce a project as invulnerable. Yet, it's the very act of submitting to such an audit that underscores a project's dedication to security and clarity. Such initiatives, by their commitment, carve a niche of trustworthiness, enhancing their appeal to a discerning audience of users and investors.
Despite extensive documentation on their site, any audits (and the results of those audits) are not easily found on MultiversX’s webpage or documentation. However, a bug bounty system is in place, and the team has excelled in its transparency and disclosures around bugs in the past.
June 2022 Bug
In 2022, the MultiversX network suffered from a bug in its VM. A new VM function, "executeOnDestContextByCaller," was deployed to the mainnet, allowing transactions to appear as if sent directly by the original transaction caller. While similar to the commonly used “execute on destination context,” this new function had unexpected vulnerabilities. A lottery contract, designed by a group of community developers, was discovered to be exploitable using this function, allowing users to manipulate outcomes. Subsequent community tests also found that a contract could transfer funds as if it were the user, leading to potential scams. To counter these vulnerabilities, the MultiversX team initiated a patch to block value transfers via this function. However, further exploration by the community identified another severe flaw. Due to MultiversX’s unique sharding capability, which relies on asynchronous calls for cross-shard contract communication, the "executeOnDestContextByCaller" function could be maliciously used in callbacks, enabling attackers to withdraw eGLD from any contract without resistance. Ultimately, a small team of MultiversX team members proposed two mainnet upgrades to improve the network's security and solve the bug.
MultiversX, formerly Elrond, is a leading smart contract blockchain platform with bleeding-edge technology like its sharded blockchain design and novel, node-shuffling Secure Proof of Stake. Additionally, with the rebrand and new products xPortal, xFabric, and xWorlds, MultiversX is clearly preparing for the digital future and looking torevolutionize how users interact with the internet and money. Its high scalability and low transaction fees make it ideal for a wide range of applications, including decentralized finance (DeFi), non-fungible tokens(NFTs), and gaming. The combination of MultiversX's forward-thinking technology and xPortal's innovative features has the potential to make MultiversX the go-to blockchain platform for Web3 and DeFi.
Disclaimer: This report was commissioned by MultiversX. This research report is exactly that — a research report. It is not intended to serve as financial advice, nor should you blindly assume that any of the information is accurate without confirming through your own research. Bitcoin, cryptocurrencies, and other digital assets are incredibly risky and nothing in this report should be considered an endorsement to buy or sell any asset. Never invest more than you are willing to lose and understand the risk that you are taking. Do your own research. All information in this report is for educational purposes only and should not be the basis for any investment decisions that you make.